The specific formulation of bath salts remains a mystery. While experts have various theories on the health risks involved, there is no unified consensus on the ingredients used. Because manufacturers frequently change their ingredient lists to avoid law enforcement action and switch to new ingredients when they are banned, no one knows for sure what they contain. This leaves consumers open to health risks. So, how can consumers know if a bath salt is safe to use? Here are some important things to consider when purchasing bath salts.
Mephedrone in bath salts is a synthetic cathinone similar to the naturally occurring stimulant found in khat plant. It was first discovered several decades ago during legitimate laboratory research and was sold as a bath salt. This drug’s effects are comparable to those of MDMA or amphetamines and can be dangerous for your health. It has the same effects as khat, but is much more potent.
The drug acts on the central nervous system by inhibiting reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitters and stimulating the release of dopamine and serotonin. Because the two drugs bind to the same transporter, they increase extracellular dopamine and serotonin. Those who are susceptible to mephedrone abuse should seek medical attention immediately. However, there are no reliable studies that prove the drug’s danger.
A bath salt is a dangerous combination of mephedrone and MDPV. It produces effects similar to those of cocaine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, and LSD. In addition, users have been known to develop intense cravings for it even after just one use. Unfortunately, the drug is now available to anyone, so it is not uncommon to see violent behavior in the wake of bath salt use.
The use of bath salts has grown rapidly in Europe and the United States. In 2011, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) placed three commonly used lab-made cathinones under emergency law. In July of that year, the Drug Enforcement Agency banned MDPV and mephedrone as well as other chemicals that are chemically similar to K2/Spice. Manufacturers of these substances have responded by producing new formulas that are different enough to avoid the law and prevent misuse of these substances.
In addition to its harmful effects, mephedrone in bath salts can be deadly if ingested or smoked. In fact, a few cases have resulted in fatalities. Whether or not a bath salts user is using it is an unknown, but a good rule of thumb for the first time is to seek medical help immediately. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) does not regulate mephedrone or MDPV.
In case of adverse effects, mephedrone should be discontinued as soon as possible and emergency treatment may be necessary. This drug causes severe vasoconstriction, impairing oxygenation to the coronary arteries. It can cause tachycardia, and if your heart rate is slow, you may need additional treatment such as fluid replacement and advanced cardiac life support. Symptomatic mephedrone treatment can resolve hypertension or tachycardia, but you should not take more mephedrone than recommended.
MDPV, or methylenedioxypyrovalerone, is a synthetic psychostimulant. The drug has similar effects to cocaine, and the metabolites rise in concentration towards the peak. Its effects are comparable to those of psychosis, and the drug was originally developed to treat schizophrenia. The drug is also 10 times more powerful than cocaine. Whether or not MDPV is addictive remains to be seen.
In the laboratory, the precision of the MDPV concentration was below 10% CV for all levels and LOD. The deviation at 500 pg/mg was only 13%. The extraction recoveries were more than 20%, and the matrix effects were less than 10%. The process efficiencies were greater than ninety-five percent. The results are summarized in Table I. For reference, the concentrations of MDPV in methanolic extract were within 4% of the mean value.
The MDPV bath salt contains 3,4-methylenedioxy-pyrovalerone, which has been implicated in a number of intoxication cases in the United States. People who consume MDPV exhibit behavioral problems for up to four weeks after consumption. Their energy levels increase and their sociability increases. In addition to these effects, MDPV has been linked to impaired brain connectivity in regions of the reward system, such as the striatum.
The dangers of MDPV are not limited to the United States. The DEA has reported cases of illegal MDPV use throughout Europe and Australia. In Germany, the first seizure of MDPV was reported in 2007. Other countries followed suit, including Canada and Israel. Earlier this year, authorities in the United Kingdom cited new reports on the use of a new type of cathinone called “flakka” for this reason.
In a recent case, MDPV exposure was linked to death. Upon hospitalization, the blood level of MDPV was 0.08 ug/mL. Over the next two days, the individual’s condition deteriorated, ultimately resulting in brain death. However, the most recent report did not report the levels of MDPV in the other tissues. Nevertheless, the death was an acute case caused by MDPV exposure, and the decedent had previously used bath salts.
Other studies on MDPV have not directly addressed the effects of the bath salt on cognition. However, dopaminergic agents have been administered to cocaine users and have shown to improve connectivity between the ventral striatum and the temporal structures. In healthy volunteers, MDPV treatment increased functional connectivity in the default mode network, but methylphenidate reduced it. Similarly, levodopa increased functional connectivity between the prelimbic area and the midbrain.
Among the effects of MDPV are paranoia and violent behavior. A recent Scranton attack victim was found to be high on MDPV, a psychoactive designer drug. The drug is sold online, in smoke shops, and convenience stores under the brand names Tranquility and Zoom. Whether or not it’s legal or illegal, it can have severe consequences. So, the question is: is MDPV safe to use?
A synthetic cathinone bath salt is a derived drug from the naturally occurring substance, cathinone, which acts on the dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin systems. As a reuptake inhibitor and transporter substrate, it elicits amphetamine-like effects. Synthetic cathinones have been associated with several side effects, and it is not known exactly how they work.
Some studies have concluded that synthetic cathinones have psychedelic and neurotoxic effects. The effects of synthetic cathinone bath salts are unknown, but they are often associated with a positive mood-altering effect. While there is little evidence to support the drug’s use in treating psychiatric and neurologic disorders, current practices are supportive. In this article, we will examine reported practices and consider noted considerations.
Cathinone and amphetamine are similar in their effect on the central nervous system (CNS). The three major subtypes of cathinones are monoamine transporter inhibitors with varying selectivity. Their primary action on neurotransmission is to trigger presynaptic dopamine release and reduce dopamine reuptake. However, cathinone has the highest affinity for norepinephrine receptors. Moreover, research has shown that cathinone can increase levels of serotonin and inhibit their reuptake.
Symptoms of synthetic cathinone intoxication include palpitations, tachycardia, and hypertension. Although synthetic cathinone overdose is rare, it can lead to serious health consequences. Although symptoms of synthetic cathinone intoxication may last from a few hours to a few days, they are often accompanied by serious neuropsychiatric complications. Among those symptoms, chest pain, palpitations, and hypotension may occur. Moreover, intoxication can result in cardiac ischemia and cardiac dysfunction, including rhabdomyolysis and myocarditis.